AFFIRMATION

affirmation, n. A pledge equivalent to an oath but without reference to a supreme being or to “swearing”; a solemn declaration made under penalty of perjury, but without an oath. Fed. R. Civ. P. 43(d). • While an oath is “sworn to ,” an affirmation is merely “affirmed,” but either type of pledge may subject the person making it to the penalties for perjury. Cf. OATH. [Cases: Witnesses 227. C.J.S. Witnesses § 394.] — affirm, vb. — affirmatory, adj.