ANIMUS

animus (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s). [Latin]

1. Ill will; animosity. class-based animus. A prejudicial disposition toward a discernible, usu. constitutionally protected, group of persons. • A class-based animus is an essential element of a civil-rights conspiracy case. [Cases: Civil Rights 1033(1), 1137. C.J.S. Civil Rights §§ 18, 20, 23–24, 34, 39–40.]

2. Intention. • All the following Latin “animus” phrases have analogous adverbial forms beginning with “animo” (the definition merely needing “with” at the outset). For example, animo furandi means “with the intention to steal,” animo testandi means “with testamentary intention,” etc.

animus adimendi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s ad-i-men-dI). [Latin] The intention to adeem.

animus belligerendi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s b[schwa]-lij-[schwa]-ren-d I). [Latin] The intention to wage war.

animus cancellandi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s kan-s[schwa]-lan-dI). [Latin] The intention to cancel. • This phrase usu. refers to a will.

animus capiendi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s kap-ee-en-dI). [Latin] The intention to take or capture.

animus contrahentium (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s kon-tr[schwa]-hen-shee-[ schwa]m). [Latin] The intention of the contracting parties.

animus dedicandi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s ded-[schwa]-kan-dI). [Latin] The intention to donate or dedicate.

animus defamandi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s def-[schwa]-man-dI). [Latin] The intention to defame. [Cases: Libel and Slander

2. C.J.S. Libel and Slander; Injurious Falsehood § 43.]

animus derelinquendi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s dee-rel-ing-kwen-dI). [Latin] The intention to abandon.

animus deserendi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s des-[schwa]-ren-dI). [Latin] The intention to desert (usu. a spouse, child, etc.). [Cases: Divorce 37(3). C.J.S. Divorce § 52.]

animus differendi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s dif-[schwa]-ren-dI). [Latin] The intention to obtain a delay. • The phrase animo differendi (“with the intention to obtain a delay”) appeared in reference to a presumption that certain actions of a defendant were designed to obtain a delay.

animus domini (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s dom-[schwa]-nI). [Latin] Roman law. The intent to exercise dominion over a thing; the intent to own something. Cf. animus possidendi.

“All possession has two elements, a physical and a mental, which the Romans distinguish as corpus and animus. The first is the physical relation of the possessor to the object. The second is his sense of that relation. If he is minded to deal with the thing as his own (animus domini — animus sibi habendi), no matter whether rightfully or wrongfully, he possesses in the fullest sense.” R.W. Lee, The Elements of Roman Law 179–80 (4th ed. 1956).

animus donandi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s doh-nan-dI). [Latin] The intention of donating; the intention to give. [Cases: Gifts 15.]

animus et factum (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s et fak-t[schwa]m). [Latin “mind and deed”] The intention and the deed. • This phrase can refer to a person’s intent to reside in a given country permanently or for an inde-finite period.

animus felonicus (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s fe-loh-ni-k[schwa]s). [Latin] The intention to commit a felony. [Cases: Criminal Law 20. C.J.S. Criminal Law §§ 31–33, 35–39; Negligence § 913.]

animus furandi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s fyuu-ran-dI). [Latin] The intention to steal. • In Roman law, the focus was on the unauthorized use of property rather than an intent to permanently deprive the owner of it. [Cases: Larceny 1,

3. C.J.S. Larceny §§ 1(1, 2), 9, 25–29.]

“[An] intent to deprive the owner of his property permanently, or an intent to deal with another’s property un-lawfully in such a manner as to create an obviously unreasonable risk of permanent deprivation, [is] all that is required to constitute the animus furandi—or intent to steal.” Rollin M. Perkins & Ronald N. Boyce, Criminal Law 332–33 (3d ed. 1982).

animus gerendi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s j[schwa]-ren-dI). [Latin] The intention to act as heir.

animus immiscendi et adeundi hereditatem (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s im-i-sen-d I et ad-ee-[schwa]n-dI h[schwa]-red-i-tay-t[schwa]m). [Latin] The intention to meddle with and take up a succession.

animus indorsandi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s in-dor-san-dI). [Law Latin] Hist. The intention of indorsing. • One who indorsed a check animo indorsandi would be liable for the amount if the check was dishonored.

animus injuriandi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s in-joor-ee-an-dI). [Latin] The intention to injure, esp. to insult.

animus lucrandi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s loo-kran-dI). [Latin] The intention to make a gain or profit.

animus malus (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s mal-[schwa]s). [Latin] Evil intent.

animus manendi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s m[schwa]-nen-dI). [Latin “will to remain”] The intention to remain; the intention to establish a permanent residence.

— Also termed animus remandendi. [Cases: Domicile 4(2). C.J.S. Domicile §§ 11–19, 25–27, 29–34, 37–40.]

animus morandi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s m[schwa]-ran-dI). [Latin “will to tarry”] The intention to remain. • Although animus morandi is broadly synonymous with animus manendi, morandi suggests less per-manency.

animus nocendi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s noh-sen-dI). [Latin] The intention to harm.

animus obligandi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s ahb-li-gan-dI). [Latin] The intention to enter into an obligation.

animus occidendi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s ahk-si-den-dI). [Latin] The intention to kill.

animus possidendi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s pah-s[schwa]-den-dI). [Latin] Roman law. The intent to possess a thing. Cf. animus domini.

animus quo (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s kwoh). [Latin] The intent with which; motive.

animus recipiendi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s ri-sip-ee-en-dI). [Latin] The intention to receive.

animus recuperandi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s ri-k[y]oo-p[schwa]-ran-dI). [Latin] The intention to recover.

animus remanendi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s rem-[schwa]-nen-dI). [Latin] See animus manendi.

animus republicandi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s ree-pub-l[schwa]-kan-dI). [Latin] The intention to republish.

animus restituendi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s r[schwa]-sti-tyoo-en-dI). [Latin] The intention to restore.

animus revertendi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s ree-v[schwa]r-ten-dI). [Latin] The intention to return (to a place). • In Roman law, this intent was a factor in deciding whether animals, such as doves and bees, remained in a person’s ownership.

animus revocandi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s rev-oh-kan-dI). [Latin] The intention to revoke (a will) (her destruction of the will indicated that she had animus revocandi). [Cases: Wills 170. C.J.S. Wills §§ 390, 393, 413–414.]

animus signandi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s sig-nan-dI). [Latin] The intention to sign. [Cases: Wills 72. C.J.S. Wills §§ 169–170.]

animus testandi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s tes-tan-dI). [Latin] Testamentary intention.

animus ulciscendi (an-[schwa]-m[schwa]s [schwa]l-si-sen-dI). [Latin] The intention to take revenge.