CITATION

citation, n.

1. A court-issued writ that commands a person to appear at a certain time and place to do something demanded in the writ, or to show cause for not doing so.

2. A police-issued order to appear before a judge on a given date to defend against a stated charge, such as a traffic violation.

— Also termed appearance ticket. [Cases: Automobiles 351.

1. C.J.S. Motor Vehicles §§ 1344, 1365–1371, 1397–1400, 1443, 1473, 1486–1487, 1496, 1508, 1518, 1526, 1532, 1543–1544, 1546–1547, 1550.]

3. A reference to a legal precedent or authority, such as a case, statute, or treatise, that either substantiates or contradicts a given position. — Often shortened to (in sense 3) cite.

parallel citation. An additional reference to a case that has been reported in more than one reporter. • For example, whereas a Bluebook citation reads “Morgan v. United States, 304 U.S. 1 (1938),” the same reference including parallel citations reads “Morgan v. United States, 304 U.S. 1, 58 S.Ct. 773, 82 L.Ed. 1129 (1938),” in which the main citation is to the U.S. Reports and the parallel citations are to the Supreme Court Reporter and to the Lawyer’s Edition.

pinpoint citation. The page on which a quotation or relevant passage appears, as opposed to the page on which a case or article begins. • For example, the number 217 is the pinpoint citation in Baker v. Carr, 369 U.S. 186, 217 (1962).

— Also termed jump citation; dictum page; pincite.

4. A reference to another document in support of an argument, as in a patent prosecution in which a party trying to defeat a claim of patentability refers to a previous patent or a publication to show that the invention lacks novelty or nonobviousness. See REFERENCE(4).

front-page citation. Patents. A citation of prior art listed on the front page of a patent application and disclosing a patent or publication that is material to the patentability of any of the application’s claims.

textual citation. Patents. A reference to a work containing prior art listed in a patent application’s body.