jury, n. A group of persons selected according to law and given the power to decide questions of fact and return a verdict in the case submitted to them. • In certain contexts, jury embraces any fact-trier, including an arbitrator or a trial judge sitting in a nonjury proceeding.
— Also termed empaneled jury; impaneled jury.
advisory jury. A jury empaneled to hear a case when the parties have no right to a jury trial. See Fed. R. Civ. P. 39(c). • The judge may accept or reject the advisory jury’s verdict. [Cases: Federal Civil Procedure 2252; Trial 369. C.J.S. Trial § 1029.]
blue-ribbon jury. A jury consisting of jurors who are selected for their special qualities, such as advanced education or special training, sometimes used in a complex civil case (usu. by stipulation of the parties) and sometimes also for a grand jury (esp. one investigating governmental corruption). • A blue-ribbon jury is not allowed in criminal trials because it would violate the defendant’s right to trial by a jury of peers. An even more elite group of jurors, involving specialists in a technical field, is called a blue-blue-ribbon jury.
common jury. See petit jury.
coroner’s jury. A jury summoned by a coroner to investigate the cause of death. [Cases: Coroners 12. C.J.S. Coroners and Medical Examiners § 15.]
deadlocked jury. See hung jury.
death-qualified jury. Criminal law. A jury that is fit to decide a case involving the death penalty because the jurors have no absolute ideological bias against capital punishment. Cf. life-qualified jury. [Cases: Jury 33(2.15). C.J.S. Juries §§ 409, 446.]
fair and impartial jury. See impartial jury.
foreign jury. A jury obtained from a jurisdiction other than that in which the case is brought. [Cases: Jury
7. C.J.S. Juries § 5.]
good jury. See special jury.
grand jury. See GRAND JURY.
homage jury. Hist. A jury in a court baron, consisting of tenants who made homage to the lord. See COURT BARON.
hung jury. A jury that cannot reach a verdict by the required voting margin.
— Also termed deadlocked jury.
impartial jury. A jury that has no opinion about the case at the start of the trial and that bases its verdict on competent legal evidence.
— Also termed fair and impartial jury. [Cases: Jury 33(2.10). C.J.S. Juries §§ 224–225, 248, 396.]
inquest jury. A jury summoned from a particular district to appear before a sheriff, coroner, or other ministerial officer and inquire about the facts concerning a death. See INQUEST.
— Also termed jury of inquest. [Cases: Coroners 12. C.J.S. Coroners and Medical Examiners § 15.]
jury de medietate linguae (dee mee-dee-[schwa]-tay-tee ling-gwee). [Latin “jury of halfness of language”] Hist. A jury made up of half natives and half aliens, allowed when one of the parties is an alien.
jury of indictment. See GRAND JURY.
jury of inquest. See inquest jury.
jury of matrons. Hist. A jury of “discreet and lawful women” impaneled to try a question of pregnancy, as when a woman sentenced to death pleads, in stay of execution, that she is pregnant. See PLEAD (ONE’S) BELLY.
jury of the vicinage (vis-[schwa]-nij).
1. At common law, a jury from the county where the crime occurred.
2. A jury from the county where the court is held. See VICINAGE. [Cases: Jury 33(3). C.J.S. Juries § 278.]
life-qualified jury. Criminal law. In a case involving a capital crime, a jury selected from a venire from which the judge has excluded anyone unable or unwilling to consider a sentence of life imprisonment, instead of the death penalty, if the defendant is found guilty. Cf. death-qualified jury. [Cases: Jury 33(2.15). C.J.S. Juries §§ 409, 446.]
mixed jury. A jury composed of both men and women or persons of different races. [Cases: Jury
8. C.J.S. Juries § 3.]
petit jury (pet-ee). A jury (usu. consisting of 6 or 12 persons) summoned and empaneled in the trial of a specific case.
— Also termed petty jury; trial jury; common jury; traverse jury. Cf. GRAND JURY.
police jury. See POLICE JURY.
presenting jury. See GRAND JURY.
shadow jury. A group of mock jurors paid to observe a trial and report their reactions to a jury consultant hired by one of the litigants. • The shadow jurors, who are matched as closely as possible to the real jurors, provide counsel with information about the jury’s likely reactions to the trial.
— Also termed phantom jury.
sheriff’s jury. Hist. A jury selected and summoned by a sheriff to hold inquests for various purposes, such as assessing damages in an action in which the defendant makes no defense or ascertaining the mental condition of an alleged lunatic.
1. A jury chosen from a panel that is drawn specifically for that case. • Such a jury is usu. empaneled at a party’s request in an unusually important or complicated case.
— Also termed struck jury. See STRIKING A JURY. [Cases: Jury 6, 71. C.J.S. Juries §§ 4, 346–347.]
2. At common law, a jury composed of persons above the rank of ordinary freeholders, usu. summoned to try more important questions than those heard by ordinary juries.
— Also termed good jury.
1. A jury selected by allowing the parties to alternate in striking from a list any person whom a given party does not wish to have on the jury, until the number is reduced to the appropriate number (traditionally 12). See STRIKING A JURY.
2. See special jury (1). [Cases: Jury 6, 71. C.J.S. Juries §§ 4, 346–347.]
traverse jury. See petit jury.
trial jury. See petit jury.