Protection and Advocacy for Individuals with Mental Illness Act. A 1986 federal statute that provides funding for the state-level establishment of independent organizations dedicated to monitoring and protecting the rights of mentally ill citizens. 42 USCA §§ 10801–10851. • Formerly titled the Protection and Advocacy for Mentally Ill Individuals Act, this statute was renamed in the Children’s Health Act of 2000 (114 Stat. 1101).