用拉丁文“ab initio”来“从头开始”

Ab initio是拉丁文,其意思是“自开始之时”或“从头开始”,可以直接翻译为“自始”。在法律英语中,ab initio的使用频率较高,比较常见。如:ab initio mundi(有史以来),void ad initio(自始无效)等。

例1:The Plaintiff claimed that such practices would make any agreement between a customer and the defendant criminal and therefore void ab initio.

原告主张这种做法会使顾客与被告人之间订立的任何协议违法,进而自始无效。

例2:An arbitration provisions contained in a contract is void under Florida law and the contract containing the arbitration provision is itself illegal and void ab initio.

译:根据佛罗里达州州法律,合同中所包括的仲裁条款无效,包括仲裁条款的合同本身非法且自始无效。(void的用法

例3:The court observed: Whether the situation is viewed as a wrongful act after rightful entry, or as a trespass ab initio, is not important.

法院评述道:不论这种情形被视为是合法进入后的不法行为还是自始就属于非法侵入他人土地,这都不重要。

评:trespass ab initio可以翻译为“自始非法侵入他人土地(之诉)”,指某人本来有权或被授权进占他人土地,但其后果如果此人滥用其权利或有不法行为,则将被视为自始就是非法侵入他人土地的。

例4:When grounds for rescission exist, and the insurer properly exercises its right to rescind or rescission is effectuate by mutual agreement, the contractual rights of the insured and insurer are extinguished ab initio – it is as if the policy had never existed.

当撤销的基础存在,并且保险人恰当地行驶其撤销权或者通过协商一致完成撤销,被保险人和保险人之间的合同权利自始消灭 – 就如保险单从不存在一样。

评:mutual agreement可以翻译为“协商一致”或“合意”,指对特定事件达成一致意见,当事人都明确表示其同意为或不为一定的行为。

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