情态动词Shall的翻译

Shall 与无特征标记词“应(该)”的翻译

Shall 除了有上述例句中的典型特征标记词外,还有没有特征标记词的情况。那么shall 的翻译是要透过字里行间的含义所指向的法律权力义务关系来判定。没有特征标记词时,有的是“由⋯⋯”设定的条件下所产生的法律权利义务,有的用“有”或“必(须)”、“予以”等等来表示。

1. Anyone who commits any of the acts listed in the preceding paragraph, which is not serious enough to constitute a crime, the Customs shall confiscate the smuggled goods, articles and illegal gains and it may also impose a fine on the person; the Customs shall confiscate the goods or articles that are specially or repeatedly used for shielding smuggling and the means of transport that are specially or repeatedly used for smuggling, and it shall order that the equipment specially made for concealing smuggled goods or articles be demolished or confiscated them.

有前款所列行为之一,尚不构成犯罪的,海关没收走私货物、物品及违法所得,可以并处罚款;专门或者多次用于掩护走私的货物、物品,专门或者多次用于走私的运输工具,予以没收,藏匿走私货物、物品的特制设备,责令拆毁或者没收(《中华人民共和国海关法》第8条)

2. A party shall have the right to request a people’s court or an arbitration agency to alter or rescind the following civil acts.

下列民事行为,一方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机关予以变更或者撤销(《中华人民共和国民法通则》第59条)。

3. An entrusted agency shall end under any of the following circumstances.

下列情形之一者,委托代理终止(《中华人民共和国民法通则》第59 条)。

4. All inward and outward means of transport, goods and articles shall enter or leave the territory at a place where there is a Customs office.

进出境运输工具、货物、物品,必须通过设立海关的地点进境或出境(《中华人民共和国海关法》第8条)。

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